Next event:
ERINN SAVAGE – Performance
Tomorrow 15:00 GMT


This year we celebrate the extraordinary achievements of GSA Singapore’s second to last cohort of BA graduands. Once again, both staff and students pulled out every stop to surpass our previous efforts. This year has been a turbulent one for us. The news surrounding GSA’s anticipated departure from Singapore in 2021 struck us with surprise. The responses from our industry friends and from our academic partners pay testimony to the profound impact which GSA Singapore has had, and will continue to have, on Singapore’s creative scene.

GSA’s graduating cohort this year will increase the number of GSA Singapore alumni to around 700. They will contribute to GSA’s growing legacy. Our alumni are known for their independent thinking, their readiness to take risks, their critical-reflective skills, and their adaptability. Trained to make a difference, our outgoing students this year are yet again destined to join the small but growing group of future vanguards in Singapore’s design industry and beyond. One of our furthest-travelling alumni, Abdul Rahman, has just returned from New York City, where he was stationed as Associate Strategist by Ogilvy.

Of course, the Covid-19 situation imposes challenges upon all of us. Good designers hone not only creative skills and passion, but also perseverance. Some of our students have already taken the initiative to design guidance information for locals to connect them to the most essential support services in Singapore. Adversity has a way of sifting out those who see opportunity in difficulty, and those who see difficulty in opportunity. There can be no doubt that our new cohort of graduating students will thrive throughout their careers.

Matthias Hillner, Director of Programmes GSA Singapore

I was not Here Before

The call for exploration is rarely acted upon when one is stuck in a routine. In another country, exploring the local environment with no agenda but to experience the location is an exhilarating process. However, back at home, the need to wander disappears. What happens when you do wander from your routine? This project is about my experience of wandering familiar places and how we can discover new places at home. It is a photo book that visually documents the poster pieces I leave in places around Singapore that I have wandered across.

I was not Here Before

I was not Here Before

Pretty Period

Pretty Period is a photo series that defies how many conservative communities perceive feminine hygiene products. In many Asian cultures, the act of menstruation is considered a dirty process, taboo to talk about freely in the open. What would it take to change that perspective? Here, ordinary feminine products are photographed with mirrors to represent flowers, something beautiful and full of life.

Pretty Period

Pretty Period


After investigating the topic of Asian cultures being appropriated in pop culture, I realised that when the online communities call out the appropriators, they tend to point fingers without context on the cultural aspect they are defending. This project is a social campaign that addresses the online herd mentality in blindly ‘defending’ against cultural appropriation without a deeper understanding of the cultures at hand.

The Alien Generation

The generation of youths that grow up in the 2000s have many quirky attributes. The Alien Generation is a quirky and addictive publication that explores the strange trends and habits that this special classification of people indulge in. Hopefully deciphering why and how they came to be, even if they do not understand it themselves.

Plastic Problem

Plastic is essentially everything, we are surrounded by it. It was initially advertised as the future, we no longer need to hoard glass packaging, food are kept fresher in plastic. It is old fashioned to not use plastic. We were told that it is the future, it keeps everything fresh. It is cheap and dispensable. Plastics are the future, save the trees and use plastics. Recycling old plastic advertising images and some taglines, into today's context. Recycling the idea into a new one, see what I did there? My TVC also reuses ads from 1997 by APC, people often gets defensive when called out. We should approach this delicately as people are Compassion Fatigued and Desensitized to Global Warming. Let the audience feel smart figuring out themselves. Recycling the 1997 plastic tvcs copywriting and footages of what plastic has done to our planet to create stark contrast in the video. Hoping to spread awareness through nostalgia and non-conventional way.

Price: £20

This item is for sale, please contact for more information.

Price: £20

This item is for sale, please contact for more information.

Price: £20

This item is for sale, please contact for more information.

Healthcare Packaging

Create a virus or illness including name, symptoms and cure. Chingus was take inspiration from a capitalism as a pandemic. Back in October 2019, NBA and Disney were under fire for censoring themselves to work with China, receiving backlash. When China refuse to work with corporations, they tend to lose millions in revenue. (Avengers are owned by Disney, there are special scenes added into the franchise to enter theatres in China.) (A NBA player tweeted freedom for HongKong in 2019, China was displeased and banned all NBA from showing in China, losing millions in revenue in just a week. The NBA manager made a public apology soon after. So much for American and their "freedom".) This project centered on mostly propaganda. The right tone needs to be set through mock ups. Flyers and posters are shot out of the plane into the streets, sirens will ring and the speaker will spread word of Chingus.

Price: £20

This item is for sale, please contact for more information.

Illustration Book

A self-initiated project, my first illustration project. All the content and illustrations are done by me. It was fulfilling to be able to write my stories. The book is eerily long, the bodycopy is long as well. Each character is the idea of a feeling. Using research of others experienced and their accounts of falling. Painting the mental image of emotions and ideas of certain elements and human instincts.

House of Gentlemen

Tasked with melding the legacy of an author of highbrow status with a regular street shop, the House of Gentlemen sees renowned Scottish novelist, Sir Walter Scott’s legacy reintepreted in a socially conscious nail bar for men. A sartorial take on traditional and contemporary standards of chivalry (an occurring theme in many of Scott’s works), House of Gentlemen lets men get their nails primed to help the ladies with the door whilst contributing to society.


Take a logical no-nonsense subject and give it some mind-boggling, non- linear thought. Nawwwledge does so by relating intelligent yet often dull topics to situations and deliberations of millennial life. For this issue, the rules of cricket is used as a metaphor for life experienced by millennials. It is a sublimely educational and highly relatable read.

Your fate in my hands

Motivated by my long-standing struggle with procrastination, I went on a quest to uncover the source of this conundrum and the cure to end it all. This poem book is the result of an introspective research process, expressing what goes on through the mind of a procrastinator and how I cope with it. It is meant to evoke a sense of familiarity and solidarity in its readers and to show them that they aren’t alone in this fight.

Your fate in my hands

The poem book can be read as a two-page spread and/or unfurled into an accordion piece.

Project 1: The Plastic Problem - WE ARE AT WAR

The Plastic Problem - WE ARE AT WAR I had to frame a new narrative to approach this as the overuse of plastic is still prevalent, despite many efforts to help reduce the use of it. My target audience were the Singaporean men as they are the ones who seem the most indifferent about any type of situation. Singaporeans tend to like marketed messages that were more locally relatable and also things that had more comedic value. The use of social media is the go-to for social cause these days. Keeping the video under one-minute to fit the restrictions of Instagram and still be able to post on Facebook. Drawing similarities to that of a Singaporean Man(Target audience) who has completed National Service but fighting a different enemy- plastic. Continuing the connection with the Singaporean context of post #OperationReadyDate #ORDLO on social media and changing it to fit my narrative. Caption: It is a battle against convenience. They know our weaknesses, They know our strengths. We know they are bad for us, But they know we need them. We need to fight back, We need to protect our land. Help us fight against the use of plastic bags and spread the cause. #OperationReusableBag #ORBLO #ShoppingBagOrder #SBO . . "Got my new tote bag, gonna use it tomorrow #ORBLO"

Project 2: Add, Subtract, Multiply, Divide - Dimensions

I used this project to push the orthodox boundaries of image-making relevant to Architecture and space photography. I wanted to combine the photography of the image on different canvas to create a new and different image, as there are a lot of ways we can see how “add subtract, multiply, divide” can be translated into photography and image making. I found that origami also expressed certain aspects of what the buildings and architecture represented; a structured and geometrical medium. It demands precision, intricate construction and attention to detail. I experimented with different forms and shapes with origami from polyhedral shapes like diamonds, prisms, pyramids and cubes to tessellated design, where we also see much of what inspired modern architecture. In my experimentation, I used base origami patterns and experimented with different ratios and forms.

Project 2: Add, Subtract, Multiply, Divide - Dimensions

Experimentation with printed images. The printed images on the origami created different intersecting lines and divisions that relate back to the brief. This still felt rather stagnant and dead as i wanted to disrupt the symbolism of the structured and rigid idea of what the architecture and origami is. I decided to experiment with projecting onto an origami installation instead. The projection consists of video and stills onto the installation. The moving images over the origami created a more organic and lively feel compared to the structured and rigidity of the elements individually. The elements of the installation were also interactive, such as the kaleidocycles and tessellated objects. This allows the viewer to distort and disrupt the image in different ways and by doing so, creating a new image in the process.

Project 3: Self-initiated - Aiwa

While doing my project, I chanced upon this old lady still using and listening to her 20 year old Aiwa radio. It gave me the inspiration to do the video advertisement with Henry Heng. The video production was directed towards going onto social media, as marketing and digital appliances purchases are mainly done online.

Arsenal Football Club Official Magazine - Feb Issue

Me being a huge Arsenal fan, I did not want to have football players on the cover page as most designers would, instead I used their mascots to portray the clubs, Arsenal (Cannon) and Tottenham Hotspur (Blue Chicken) respectively. The main attraction is in the centre, The cannon is ready to blast the chicken to outer-space. This way I could add some fun to the cover page design.

It was quite a challenge to design this page. This was my first time doing a “print design” as I’ve been designing for the screen (digital) my whole life. Layout placements in print design can be very important, but I didn’t want to compromise on my digital skillset for this particular page. Therefore I fused both styles. Now read the RED letters from top to bottom. What do you get?

I thought it would be quite interesting to show all the French players who have played for Arsenal Football Club during it’s 134 year old history. As such this would be the complete list of French players from the year 1886 - 2019.

I had a lot of flexibility and fun working on the design on this page in particular because of how I managed to cleverly merged 2 different Arsenal Third Kits (Pink & Cyan) into 1 page. By doing so, not only does it not look regular and dull anymore… It also looks energetic and youthful!

The last one would be a collage of many more different page layouts and designs that are featured in my own edition of the Arsenal Magazine. 

For more information, visit

Incuba - Luxury Healthcare Packaging

INCUBA is a microchip that is inserted and incubates in the human body which reverses the effects of procrastination by monitoring and re-balancing the different levels of hormonal and negative chemicals changes in the human body.

This is my design process where I came out with some rough sketches digitally with pin-point accuracy and measurements done to scale for the development stage for product prototyping. I also made a breakdown of the different parts needed to put the prototype together to finalise the design.

This is the “Chip base Plate” where the placement of INCUBA chip will be for display.

Once the top half of the packaging is opened and remove, underneath this is what you will see. The Emblem of the INCUBA chip design (hexagon-shaped) and a Manual for the user to know how the product functions.

The last one would be a collage of many more different page layouts and designs that are featured during the Product shot on INCUBA.

For more information, visit


Maybe we should see life with an open mind of what can be, instead of through the narrow lens of what should be. Part 1: ‘Human’ is a reflection of my biggest takeaway studying abroad for the first time. I realised how we humans subject ourselves to preconceived notions and perspectives instead of cherishing the freedom of what could be and are often disappointed if not achieved. With this poster as the base design, I continue by physically adding things on, to create an interactive experience for my audience. "A human is only a human because we have an image of it”


Part 2: Attached are needles to create a string play board to encourage audiences in creating their own image of a human. With every unique interaction, I am hoping to break boundaries of what should be and reinforce the concept of what could be.

Perception of Peace

Living in a fast-paced city-state, it comes as second nature to find peace away from the hustle and bustle. Albeit often associated with vast spaces and tranquility, this publication hopes to bring awareness to another perspective of peace by documenting the raw emotion of the things that make our city-state fast moving :- The People

Perception of Peace

Several spreads of the publication

Lunching with Lunch-in'

Facing the issue regarding our over usage of plastic, Lunching with Lunch-in’ aims to tackle a habit with a matter of convenience by pitching to companies in the Central Business District, an idea of creating a more bonded company culture through the usage of a more convenient and sustainable take away container amongst themselves during their lunchtime.

Lunching with Lunch-in'

An improved version of the well known, Ting Kat! Not only does it have individual layer lids for separate take aways, one of these containers, can save 3 take away boxes! Leave the office with 1 container, come back with three meals!

Lunching with Lunch-in'

Every Lunch-in’ comes with a one page zine as an instruction manual and an informative sheet! Open it all up and turn it around to double it up as a poster to spice up your pantry as both a reminder to save the Earth and a decoration.

Lunching with Lunch-in'

Three possible designs behind the zine.

Blue Alert

Climate change holds true as one of the important issues of our generation but why aren’t Singaporeans doing much about it? I discovered that Singapore could be in a state of denial towards climate change as we are neither directly affected nor witnessing the catastrophes first hand. By incorporating climate change with something familiar that hints at an emergency, Blue Alert brings climate change to its audience through virtual reality while educating them about the severity of their actions through a scenario-driven card game.

Blue Alert

Blue Alert is an educational card game based on things that Singaporean enjoys (Blue card) but prompts you to destroy it (Alert card) due to our behaviour and climate change - talking about reverse psychology. This in hopes to influence the players lifestyle and decision making when it comes to climate issues - which we are late to act upon.

Blue Alert

Blue Alert

Blue Alert

Check out this project and many more through my online portfolio. Thanks for viewing.

Sweet of The Forgetfulness

A story about a boy and his mysterious encounter with a MAMA Shop in Singapore, that give him a chance to reset his life. This project deals with discontentment we have in our daily life, always never satisfied with the life have, instead we are always searching for that reset button in life.


This is an alphabet book about a love that was really something and not just the idea of something. Reimagining Bonnie and Clyde relationship in the 21th century.


This is an alphabet book about a love that was really something and not just the idea of something. Reimagining Bonnie and Clyde relationship in the 21th century.


Little Red Dot, known as home for majority of the Singaporeans ; whom many assume had explore and seen everything but not yet literally everything to this date. In these series of photographs which depicts the interior, artefact and the women of Imperial Harem ( hou gong ) serves the purpose of leading back in time through the Thow Kwang Pottery Jungle which is also known for its famous Dragon Kiln. Delving back into the Imperial Harem of the Qing Dynasty where the Emperor, Empresses, Consorts and Concubines live. Many of these women who were at the age between 13-17 years old when they married the Emperor of China. Thus with this little collection and series of photographs it serves a meaning deeper to know that there’s after all light and hope to explore further and leave no stone unturned.

Internetto Magazine

Internetto is a magazine that covers Internet slangs and trends in bit-sized information for the Masses.

100 Days

The first 100 days were full of workshops that dragged me through a lot, and taught me to expand my imagination, in a different way than I was previously used to. They challenged us to use our ‘mistakes’ and turn them into art.

Using pareidolia to form alphabets, and a form of typography from one of the previous assignments.


Exploring ordinary daily cleaning products that we all use in our life; objects that we would discard without much thought. Inspired by Tanaka Tatsuya’s miniature innovations, it freed up the childlike side of my mind. Playing with the eye of a camera lens creates a whole new perspective. The lighting enhances the environment, the ‘negative space’ of the image. Overall, it expands the visual language by telling a story of how the mundane could possibly become extraordinary.

Water Slide

Presenting in a flip-up form is the most natural and pleasant way of exploring the content. Giving a sense of curosity which invites them to see what’s underneath, focusing on the content instead of figuring out how the controls work.


XEN presents itself as an interesting gift for your friends and associates, who are pottymouths. A manifesto that is often understood as a prescription, we wanted to create a snack that subtly reminds the special one that he/she is ‘foulmouthed’ yet in an unoffending manner. The premium handcrafted medication kit we designed contains edible mouth-watering finger soaps, encased in a pretty crude ‘X'. Enjoy!

XEN Infographic

Exratis is a virus that diagnoses individuals with symptoms of speaking excessive pexpletives, to the point of needing someone to point that out. Another obvious way to spot someone with Exratis is Sweacne; the more cussin’, more break outs. We all know that we want to have a great impressions, and XEN is here to help you out.

Battle of the giants

An independent research that focuses on mobile phone consumerism. Having a fresh approach towards uncovering how our phone reflects one’s personality. The goal is to find a new perspective.

The Fruit

Utilising clean aesthetics and simple illustration, this section focuses on the tech giant, Apple. Through monotonal in mood, the brand identity need not be explicitly mentioned and merely implied. It uses subtle details that Apple users might not immediately notice, but yet it is apparent to others that it reflects on who they are as a person.

The Green Monster

With a more vibrant mood, this chapter talks about how Android focuses on innovation, as well as their shortcomings. Having an experimental approach, this section uncovers how different features on different phones reflect each individuals’ personality and habits.

Re-Imagined Spaces: The play of light and shadow in our everyday life

This project started with questions of how the duality of light and shadow, that is so significant in our lives, impact us on a daily basis. I believe that light and shadow has the ability to evoke one’s emotions in a space even in very mundane spaces. 'Re-imagined Spaces' aims to investigate the notion of light and shadow and how it can affect in representing a space. Through a selection of ordinary and common spaces, the projects questions the possibilities of how these spaces can be re-imagined when light and shadow is used as the driving force of the space.

Part One: Exploration of light and shadow

The documentation covers 8 various sites in Singapore to explore the existence of light and shadow in our daily life. Ideas from the collection of photographs from the site visits are translated into simple study models. Through it, making discoveries on how light and shadow can affect our spatial experience.

Part Two: The Rhythm of Shadows

Looking into the play of light and shadow in everyday spaces, a transitional space was chosen as the typology of this project. A hospital can be a very anxiety charged place for some visitors. Thus, this project aims to target users from the hospital and explore how light and shadow can momentarily evoke a sense of calmness through the transition. The idea of rhythm and intensity of light and shadow was explored. Darkness evokes a form of mysteriousness and portrays silence. The forms of shadow becomes more rigid and darker when reaching the middle of the transition walkway. The idea of darkness, minimal light and stillness evoke silence in the space and aims to create a contemplative atmosphere.

At the darkest and most still point of the walkway, a slit allows a ray of light to enter the space. The only benches are placed here to encourage one to momentarily remain at this place.

Part Three: Sanctuary Café

This part looks into the typology of an ordinary food court. The project aims to create a relaxing space for people to dine in, contrasting to the surrounding fast paced and crowded environment. It will explore how the interplay of light and shadow create a comfortable experience in such a setting. The project explores calmness through the use of water. In particular, the experience is catered for solo diners.

Moving forward, the glass floor is removed and replaced with glass steps, revealing the texture of the water. The light strips aims to entice people to continue walking forward, while the black tiles gives a sense of depth.

Nearest to the kitchen is the short-term dining area. The curved seating is intended to break the linear geometry and also make it harder for users to communicate, giving more privacy to solo diners. Sounds from the cascading water fountain behind the panels can be heard to create the calming sound.

For the private pods, shoji screens are used as the materials for the partitions to keep it less rigid yet maintain the level of privacy. The screens will also reveal the shadows of people. As it is a really long corridor, the alcove will give depth to the shadows and users will be drawn towards that as they walk through.

The visual and audio aspects of water is strategically integrated into the design of each space to help create the calming experience.

Creativity in Everyday Life

Project: Creativity in Everyday Life. The project intention is to allow the user to unveil their own sense of creativity. The project aim is to build an awareness that creativity is present in everyday life. Designing the circumstances for creativity to arise.

Creativity in Everyday Life

Conceptual models and sketches done to interpret the frameworks by practitioners (Bruno Munari, Johannes Itten and Tim Ingold) that motivated the study of Creativity in Everyday Life.

Creativity in Everyday Life

An exhibition showcasing the subtle presence of creativity in everyday life at home. Site: HDB Estate (Hougang Street 91 Block 909 Singapore) Taxonomy Poster: Exhibits of everyday household items in their settings and their multiple uses as created by the user.

Creativity in Everyday Life

Initial exploration of the exhibition - circulation and spatial planning. The site of the exhibition was suppose to be at Gilmann Barrack AFA Block 28.

Creativity in Everyday Life

The circulation and spatial planning were reorganised to the new site, the HDB Estate. A sense of unveiling in an inconvenient setting that allows the user a greater sense of curiosity in stimulation. A spontaneous reaction between the user and the exhibition. Evoke a higher catalyst for awareness.

Creativity in Everyday Life

Exhibition Design. Modules of the various different settings in a Home. The modules are fully interactive. Users may inhabit the space and interact with everything in the module. The interaction between the user, object and the space is a key part in evoking the sense of awareness in the presence of creativity in everyday life.

Creativity in Everyday Life

Exhibition Design. Highlighting the placement of the exhibits within the module space.

Creativity in Everyday Life

Creating from imagination rather than following instructions. This gives users the tools to create. Users are free to imagine, explore ideas and invent new things. Site: Kallang Rivergreen Building - Singapore. Taxonomy Poster: Understanding creativity in everyday life in the context of the workplace.

Creativity in Everyday Life

Perspective of intended spatial design - I. Building the workstation is intuitive and fun and resembles the direct creative output of work (precedent studies that were referenced are the Caroline Pratt Unit Blocks and Interslot by Rodger Limbrick).

Creativity in Everyday Life

Perspective of intended spatial design - II

From entertainment to salvation, the former Venus Theatre in Singapore

In 1983, the Venus theatre in Singapore’s west went through a metamorphosis by adaptive reuse after the cinema suffered economically. In 1985, the Church of Our Saviour became its new occupant. Today, the church continues to operate in the community, struggling to stay relevant. This project aims to create a greater connection to the community through a multi functional, therapeutic space bringing people together whilst being relevant to the current context.


This collage shows how the project proposes to open up the enclosed space, bringing people together and breathing new life into an old building. The site happens to be strategically located along the Queenstown MRT and Queenstown Secondary School. Because of its favourable location, the church adapted the space to fit the needs of the youth who can use the site’s facilities for quick foosball games, water break, resting spot and meeting point. However, the main church auditorium remains untouched during the weekdays making this space underutilised.

Model Exploration

With a desire to open up the enclosed space, model explorations have been undertaken to break the buidling’s rigidity by adding alternate circulation, playing with volume height and width, yet celebrating the original structure, and taking both its interior and exterior activities into consideration. Some of Singapore’s buildings seem greatly influenced by Le Corbusier’s modernist, 1960s practice, especially his “Five points of architecture”. In the case of the Church of Our Saviour pilotis act as a primary support of the building.

Redefining the Church

While adaptive reuse gives a space new purpose, the church community was forced to dwell in a building that was not originally meant for its use. This photo montage hopes to represent how a church hall could look- drawing individuals into the holiness of God through considerations of form, materiality, zoning, light and shadow.

Forms, Light and Shadow

Martin Luther gave birth to the reformation and protestantism, changing Christianity through a rejection of ornamentation, the legacy of empire and majestic socio-spatial power. These model explorations look at the influence that materiality and light can have on atmospheres that may draw individual to sacredness. Taking influence from monolithic architecture where buildings were carved from a single piece of material, these models try to replicate a similar raw, intimate dwelling space.

The journey into the main sanctuary

To create a dynamic and versatile interior space that enhances the look and creates a timeless, classic feel, materials such as natural stone, in particular limestone, were used, as well as both elements of wood and glass. Lime stone is known to be strong and able to withstand abrasion. A tunnel was designed to play with depth, and a low ceiling creates a space that allows for individual contemplation.


In reference to Peter Zumthor’s Bruder Klaus Field Chapel of which he says: “In order to design building with a sensuous connection to life, one must think in a way that goes beyond form and construction” this design was established from a foundation of two contrasting materials: rock and light. With minimal ornamentation, this design hopes to bring people atmospherically into an experience of holiness.

Interior Space

This image shows the exploration undertaken, to captures both materiality, form and texture in render.

Space for the community

This project looks into creating a dual functional design, i.e. two programmes that operate at the same time in the same space. The first floor caters to a public crowd, while the upper floor caters to the existing Church of Our Saviour community. This design hopes to revitalised and be relevant to current community activities in the face of urbanisation.

Environmental issues have been so much more important to me in recent years, and that has influenced the ways I approach the type of projects I want to do and how I want to execute them. For my Final Year Project, I wanted to explore the possibilities of how we can live with the least carbon footprint as possible. This will be done by tackling how HDBs can be reconfigured in order to be more self-reliant and self-sustainable. As we live through a strange time, through the COVID-19 pandemic, the notion of being more self-reliant and self-sustainable is more relevant than ever.

This collage was my way of expressing a ‘futuristic’ Singapore and how Archigram’s unbuilt projects could become a reality. My project was very inspired by Archigram and the theory of Rubanisation by Tay Kheng Soon. The idea of Plug-In City constantly evolving to meet the needs of people, and by having all the resources needed in one mega-machine – without harming the environment, was something that intrigued me. I wanted to combine those ideas, with the strategies of Rubanisation, to redefine how we live today so that we live with the least carbon footprint.

This is a series of materials made from waste. Gas, oil, consumerism, electricity, transportation and every other form of human activity, contributes to our carbon footprint. I asked myself, what if I could make my own spoon? Knowing that waste is a great carbon footprint contributor, I wanted to explore how household waste could be reused and made into something new, to kick-start the project. What if I made my own spoon using banana peels? That would mean I do not have to buy a new spoon - I do not contribute to consumerism and energy to produce a new spoon, and I get to reduce and reuse my waste, promoting a circular economy. 1. Milk + Vinegar 2. New-paper (made from waste paper) 3. New-clay (made from waste paper) 4. New-clay 5. Alternative Banana Peel Material 6. ABPM lamp shade 7. New-paper + ABPM 8. Slab of ABPM 9. New-paper 10. Weaving ABPM 11. New-paper + ABPM 12. Weaving ABPM with mesh

This neighbourhood is the site I chose as it already had a lot of existing amenities that I could work with to create a new masterplan. The analysis and masterplans done were based on the strategies of Rubanisation. My main objective was to ensure that no building was just purely residential, it had to be combined with another programming.

The diagrams of different configurations were a process of redistributing the existing amenities from the site, to one HDB building. Although this idea sounds like a Mixed Used Development, I was exploring an idea away from that typology, hence I decided on Diagram 6 as its configuration was most different from a MUD. I then translated this idea to a very draft collage to envision the type of spaces I wanted to have. To continue, I traced over the collages so that I could draw out how certain spaces could relate to one another. It was very important to sketch them so that they came together as one whole space. In order to redefine the way, we live, I chose to focus on a HDB building because it is the most common form of local housing.

What if HDB blocks had everything we needed? A pandemic-proof, zombie apocalypse-proof housing, because we would not need to leave our homes? My vision of a new HDB typology was to combine everything in a neighbourhood, into a singular block. Having urban farms are integral for residents to be able to grow their own food. This new typology is all about self-reliance, self-sustainability and a circular economy. This compilation shows the final iteration of the collage and how in reflects on a HDB from the site. The diagrams on the right show the circulation of the different spaces, programming and space planning.

To decrease carbon footprint, the principle of sharing is very important. For instance, not everyone cooks, hence, not everyone needs a kitchen. Layout explorations 1 and 2 were to explore the optimal potential of a HDB floor plate and how many bedrooms there could be by creating a central node of common areas. Traditional HDB units were eliminated for a floor to become one. With reference to my envisioned HDB typology, I decided to develop Level 9, which consisted of co-working spaces, farm, common areas and residential.

Inspired by Archigram’s Plug-In city and how it is able to adapt and change to the needs of its users, I wanted to incorporate this idea to the residential quarters by designing adaptable bedrooms. The bedrooms can be made bigger or smaller depending on the user. By having this flexibility, it lessens the likelihood of people having to move homes which in turn decreases the demand for new housing. Hence, this could possibly lessen buildings that need to be built and thus decreasing our carbon footprint.

This series of models is an ideation of furniture design. There is also potential to incorporate the earlier exploration of alternative materials, with the construction of the furniture.

This series of models is to explore the design of the common areas. I wanted to explore how people could come together, their co-existence in this new typology and their co-existence with nature. The idea was to create spaces without having to build solid walls, so that the spaces could be open and allow for natural ventilation to take place. By being more open, the common areas are also able to seamlessly connect with the other spaces.

LUSH Flagship Store (retail)

This project analyses how existing shopper’s habits in LUSH could be adapted and triggered in a flagship store by tapping into the sensorial aspects of a consumer. The project taps onto the existing senses of shoppers that makes them move and react in a certain manner within the store itself. 3 senses, “See, Touch and Smell” are observed, thus these senses are being used to develop deeper into the flagship store experience tapping onto these sensorial aspects, allowing shoppers to wander into the space, finding their own preferences. ​

Layout Plan: Proposed Zoning, Circulation and Material

The flagship store is separated into different zones which consists of different scents. These zones are separated based on the experience and scent. The proposed zoning, circulation and material provides an overall view of the space as well as the possible journey that could take place within the store.

Red Experiential Zone

Shoppers could place their head into the opening to get closer and feel the texture of the wall. LED strips from the bottom would shine in enhancement of the experience. The experiential wall (scratch and sniff wall) are used to contain the smell within the space instead of having it diffuse around the store, overwhelming the senses of shoppers. Upon scratching onto the experiential wall, it releases the scent of roses allowing shoppers to get a preview of the smell.

Transitional Space

The transitional space serves as a preview of the overall flagship store before shoppers enters. Different coloured pod gives a sneak preview of the senses that will be tapped into as well as associating the specific colours that matches with the scent and senses.

Yellow Experiential Zone

The texture wall for the yellow zone is left exposed in comparison to the other zones as the zone tapped onto its texture such as its smooth, citrus surfaces to provide a different experience to shoppers.

Passage Way

The passage(way) shows how shoppers can walk through the store by their senses through visuals and scents. Certain zones are placed closely to allow shoppers to follow the type of scent they prefer as they can smell 2 different scents while walking through the space

Inhabitation (Installation)

Inhabitation is an experimentation on multiple design concepts by studying the existing habits within the site, thus creating an installation which enhances and invites the existing habits to take place within the installation. Habits in this project pertain to the routine of people. This project is an installation, a temporary feature on site for a 3 – 6 months duration.

Portal of Memories

Modular cubes that are hollow serve as a portal of memories to users. These boxes are like a frame captured in one’s mind, creating memories. What one sees in each box may not be what others see, hence the “memories” captured in these modular cubes differ for each individual.

Reflective Memories

Mirrors trigger a form of reflected memories such that when one peers into a mirror, what they are seeing is being reflected. This reflection alters memory, as what lies before their eyes will eventually become a memory of the past. What one sees today will become a memory tomorrow. The mirrors reflect what users see, turning it into the past.


This installation allows users to identify and interact with the modular cubes such that the big modular cubes can be used as a space where one sits to read. The smaller cube serves as a step to get from one space to another. It also provides users use it as a sitting or discussion spot.

The Irreversible Cycle: Life and Death (Exhibition)

The Manifesto project is a curation of an exhibition which consists of a constructed narrative that ties the selected collection of installations and art pieces together as a coherent whole, creating a themed exhibition space. A life cycle is defined as the developmental stages that occur during an organism’s lifetime. A life cycle ends when an organism dies. Life and death are a continuous cycle, making birth and death different ends of the same spectrum of existence. This continuing loop of life, death, and rebirth is at the heart of everyday living.

The Irreversible Cycle: Life and Death (Exhibition)

Spatial context of the exhibition which includes a summarised overview of the exhibition’s narrative and its journey from the beginning to the end.

Floating Time (Mid Life Cycle)

In the dark space where lights emitting are mainly from the exhibited pieces, a black curtain is used to separate the artworks so that the lights and its effect does not seep through the spaces, allowing visitors to immerse each space fully.

Decomposition (Dying/Decomposing Cycle)

The decomposition space consists of artworks which represents death and how it can also be in the form of decaying.

Corridor Transition (Death Cycle)

Leading to the next exhibited object, mirrors are placed with the intention of providing a preview of the next artwork, Archive of Deathclock, as well as having the visitors to be a part of the artwork.

The In-Between

A simple Question of Inhabitation: What would happen in that in-between space between modern corporate shops and traditional strata shops? How would the audience from each typology interact with one another? How would the intended program in the in-between space turn out? The in-between space isn't solely owned by either party. A no man's land.


Elevation 1 of the intended proposed design of the In-Between space.


Elevation 2 of the intended proposed design of the In-Between space.

Changing Home

A simple Question of Inhabitation: Shouldn't space be determined by the play and inhabitation of the users rather than the play and inhabitation of the users to be determined by the space layout? Boundaries and Territories are always referred to as built-in and rigid structures. Boundaries and Territories should be easily moved around to cater to the ever-changing needs of the audience.

Changing Home- An Axo

An axonometric overview of the intended proposed design.


A movable kitchen wall/cabinet that can extend the use of the kitchen and dining space or to minimize it in order to use the extra space for other activities.

Gym & Art

Likewise a movable gym wall/cabinet acts as a door for two rooms, and when not in use can be extended to facilitate gym and art activities.

Function, aesthetics and construction

Throughout history, the triad of aspects corresponding to function, aesthetics and construction has been proposed as the fundamental components in design, from Vitruvius to various contemporary authors. This year-long research, titled 'Optimal design: function, aesthetics and construction', builds upon these theoretical underpinnings, and through a series of exercises, this idea is investigated and clarified within the context of interior design. The lobby-seating area of SIT@TP was chosen as the site.

Designing to the context

The optimality of the design to its context is explored. For example, in 'Project 1: Function', a 'double-decker' strategy (shown on the left) may be better when there is space constraints, while a flexible programme and capacity may require collapsible furniture (shown on the right).

Finding the context

Factors, such as the pedestrian flow or circulation of the site, largely influence its function. In this case, the circulation reaffirms that the site is heart of the building. Thus, it may serve as a kind of landmark as one of its main function.

Functional design explorations

The circular design is explored, which conveys the centrality of the space, and contrasts against the straight lines of the building. Refinements are made on the basis of the functional concerns – its primary uses (programmes, activities and users), comfort (such as privacy, access and noise) and safety.

Spatial arrangement

Atelier-Bow-Wow style perspective plan of the design.


In 'Project 2: Aesthetics', the design is approached first as a kind of sculpture or art before dealing with functional concerns. Through collages like this, the atmosphere of the space and the visual composition can be quickly explored. For the site, the quiet and darker study and resting area is contrasted with the brighter and more busy lobby area.

Aesthetics design explorations

Through understanding the formal visual language of the existing building, the new design can be conceived as the continuation of a visual composition of the whole gestalt. Different aesthetics forms can be produced based on the formal language, although they are functionally similar.

Modular furniture

A modular approach may be interesting, where the furniture can be arranged to form many different seating configurations.

Different arrangements of furniture

Physical models exploring the modular furniture configurations.

Track details

Exploration of how the modular furniture can be moved along a track. In A, a metal floor strip provides only visual feedback on where it should be. In B, a custom-extruded strip provides a small slope along the edges, allowing the furniture to slide more easily into its track. In C, a wheel-and-grove design enables users themselves to easily reconfigure the furniture arrangements, although more maintenance may be required.

A collage that shows the overall aim of the project which is to understand the sensorial needs of hypersensitive individuals with autism and support them in spaces where they transit into an existing community.

Exploration of the spatial qualities of the communal garden by thinking through making.

In case of sensory overload within the community centre, hypersensitive individuals with autism could use the lounge, which is designed as a therapeutic healing space with interior elements that promote mental curiosity and stimulate the desire of experiencing the space.

The second part of the project is a redesigned hawker centre. The food stalls are placed within the high-stress areas while the seating area is placed nearer to the low-stress areas. The two areas are separated with the main circulation path. This redefines a spatial hierarchy which would help hypersensitive individuals with autism.

Seats that allows configuration are integrated with the redesigned hawker centre. The seats can be converted into booth seating if hypersensitive individuals with autism require a space of a sense of enclosure.

Pause spaces with seating are added into the hawker centre to provide opportunities for prospect while consuming meals. These pause spaces are clearly distinguished with a ring of landscape design which also helps with odour abatement.

The third part of the project is a community library. The library cantilevers above the communal garden, blurs the transition of exterior spaces into interior spaces and creates an inclusive environment for the local community.

UOB Plaza installation

We commonly perceive boundary as a form of physical segregation, rather than as a state of mind. Using the construct of efficiency as a focus on this study, the physical intervention is designed disrupt the psychological boundary. The idea of boundary as a state of mind stems from the observation of people's behaviors during the course of their commute. In a journey, different events may occur, efficiency results in people being fixated on their next destination, often forgoing interacting with their surroundings, like an intangible imaginary boundary around an individual.

UOB Plaza installation

Much of these observations lay testament to Pierre Bourdieu's theory of Habitus, which mentions ingrained habits, skills and dispositions, the way that individuals perceive the social world around them and react to it. An intervention in the end brings about a platform of interaction to an open fast paced region. However this opens up a new question, must boundaries be blurred? or can they be balanced.

243 Joo Chiat Road

This project explores the notion of balance, using a shophouse unit at Joo Chiat Road to carry out this investigation. Joo Chiat has an interesting mix of contrasting functions under one roof, typically segregated by levels. Using existing functions of a bar, habitation and KTV, this project tries to build a reciprocal relationship by blurring the physically boundaries through an interconnection of the functions.

243 Joo Chiat Road

This project uses the idea that lights give preeminence to the active functions at a given time and vice versa. Forms used create different levels of privacy for various functions, whilst light and materials determine the degree of privacy. The denotation of shadows, light exposure over times of the day and form allow for allocating of functions, functions categorized according to their levels of privacy

243 Joo Chiat Road

In the space, activities of each function are exposed to one another. The KTV here can be seen in contrast to the bar, artificial lights from the KTV indicate its dominance in activity at night, while daylight of day reveals the bar open as an eatery and the active function of the moment.

243 Joo Chiat Road

Apart from lights to denote boundaries, forms and materials are important. Consistent materials that pertain to particular functions subtly indicate the domain of public and private. Difference in forms denote the difference in domains. The denser and more rigid forms indicate the habitation area, while more open areas denote the public areas. All of which are connected to each other in different ways. The question of balance in boundaries among functions may not solve immediate problems, but rather opens up avenues on boundaries and their intangibility, and how they can experiment with in the vast domain of interior design.